Hyperpigmentation refers to a skin condition where there is an overproduction of melanin, the pigment responsible for skin color causing a darkened area. Although it is medically harmless, it is unwelcome to those who suffer from it on cosmetic grounds. It either occurs when there is an abnormally high concentration of melanocytes for melanin production or when melanocytes are hyperactive.
Sun Spots/ Damage
Light to dark brown spots and patches due to sun exposure and aging - e.g., freckles, light and dark brown spots.
Superficial and deep. Melasma (muh-LAZ-muh) is a common skin problem. It causes brown to gray-brown patches, usually on the face. Most people get it on their cheeks, bridge of their nose, forehead, chin, and above their upper lip. It also can appear on other parts of the body that get lots of sun, such as the forearms and neck.
Women are far more likely than men to get Melasma. It is so common during pregnancy that Melasma is sometimes called "the mask of pregnancy." Melasma is caused by sun exposure, hormones, irritating skin care products.