Hyperpigmentation refers to a skin condition where there is an overproduction of melanin, the pigment responsible for skin color causing a darkened area. Although it is medically harmless, it is unwelcome to those who suffer from it. It either occurs when there is an abnormally high concentration of melanocytes for melanin production or when melanocytes are hyperactive.
Sun Spots/ Damage
Sun exposure and aging can cause hyperpigmentation in the form of light to dark brown spots and patches, freckles, and age spots.
Superficial and deep. Melasma is a common skin problem. It causes brown to gray-brown patches, usually on the face. The most common areas include cheeks, bridge of the nose, forehead, chin, and above the upper lip. It can also appear on other parts of the body that get a lot of sun, such as the forearms and neck.
Women are far more likely than men to get Melasma. It is so common during pregnancy that Melasma is sometimes called "the mask of pregnancy." Melasma is caused by sun exposure, hormones and irritating skin care products.